Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), also called reflux, is a chronic disease that affects an estimated 1 in 5 U.S. adults.1 GERD is caused by a weak lower esophageal sphincter (LES) that allows acid and bile to move up, or “reflux”, from the stomach into the esophagus, often causing injury to the lining of the esophagus and symptoms such as, heartburn, chest pain, regurgitation, sore throat, and cough. When left untreated, GERD can lead to serious complications including stricture, Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer. The LINX® Reflux Management System is designed to keep the weak esophageal sphincter closed to prevent reflux.
Osteoporosis is a common problem in the United States and usually is associated with older age. People with Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by ulcers in the large and small bowel, are particularly susceptible to developing osteoporosis. The chances are as high as 77 percent.
One of the dreaded consequences of osteoporosis is bone fracture, even with minor trauma. The bone fracture risk in Crohn’s disease patients is at least 40 percent higher than in other, unaffected people of the same age and sex.
“People with Crohn’s disease are particularly susceptible to developing osteoporosis. The chances are as high as 77 percent.”
Bret Lashner, MD
Director of the Center for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
This is why it is important to find ways for Crohn’s disease patients to address their risk of developing osteoporosis
An intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine has invaginated into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another. This can often result in an obstruction. The part that prolapses into the other is called the intussusceptum, and the part that receives it is called the intussuscipiens.
Early symptoms can include nausea, vomiting (sometimes bile stained (green color)), pulling legs to the chest area, and intermittent moderate to severe cramping abdominal pain. Pain is intermittent not because the intussusception temporarily resolves, but because the intussuscepted bowel segment transiently stops contracting. Later signs include rectal bleeding, often with “red currant jelly” stool (stool mixed with blood and mucus), and lethargy. Physical examination may reveal a “sausage-shaped” mass felt upon palpation of the abdomen.
In children or those too young to communicate their symptoms verbally, they may cry, draw their knees up to their chest or experience dyspnea (difficult or painful breathing) with paroxysms of pain.
This procedure was performed by Dr. Rana C Pullatt, MD, FACS
Joseph Pilates’ WWI-era exercise routine is still going strong — for good reason. The toning movements strengthen and lengthen the muscles, especially the core. Try this 10-minute workout to feel strong and lean. Each move is designed to engage the deep muscles in the abs, back, and arms and legs.
No matter what anyone tells you, Fish Tacos are hot. The recipe came out of the fishing villages off the Sea of Cortez, and now reside in the finest restaurants in America. This recipe may seem a little daunting, but if you are hosting a gala, this is food that will please all. The combination of tastes has been described as the best thing that has happened to the taco since, well, tacos!
Photo credit: Lorenia / Foter.com / CC BY-NC-ND
Summer means fresh fruit in abundance, and nothing adds to a meal like a fruit salad on a warm day. Try this recipe from the Culinary Institute of America. Don’t forget the orange-blossom water.
The frittata is an omelette with a difference. It originated in Italy, and referred to any type of eggs cooked in a skillet. Over the years it has evolved as chefs added ingredients and slow cooked the recipe, usually completing the preparation by placing the skillet in an oven. You can add anything to a frittata. Fried potatoes are common, and lately green vegetables are making this classic dish a bit healthier. Enjoy.
What is an Autoimmune Disease?
Your body is constantly under attack from other organisms, in the form or viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. Without protection, your chances of surviving these attacks are quite slim. As a consequence, a complex system of defenses has been created to respond to these attacks The immune system protects the body from foreign invaders. In order to do this, it must be able to recognize the parts of the body that are not foreign. In persons with autoimmunity, the mechanism by which the immune system distinguishes foreign bodies from your own tissues and organs breaks down, and the immune system attacks a part of yourself. There are many autoimmune disorders that occur in many places inside the human body. 
What is Coeliac Disease?
Coeliac disease occurs when the immune system attacks the tissue and lining of the small intestine. It can begin when you are a child, and may continue your entire life. In most cases, there are symptoms, which include:
- Pain and discomfort
- Chronic constipation and diarrhea
A person may not have any symptoms of Coeliac Disease. (The medical term for having no symptoms is called asymptomatic.) In children, a failure to thrive can also be a symptom, because the small intestine is where nutrients are absorbed by the body. Vitamin deficiencies are a consequence. 
What causes Coeliac Disease?
Common grains, like wheat, barley, and rye, contain a protein called gluten, and this protein causes a reaction in the small intestine. The resulting inflammation affects the villi lining of the small intestine, which is the lining that absorbs nutrients. The more gluten a person ingests, the more the lining becomes inflamed, and this causes the lining to wither, or atrophy. It becomes a vicious cycle, and the small intestine becomes less able to absorb nutrients the more it atrophies.
Is there a cure for this disease?
Presently, a gluten-free diet is the only way to avoid the inflammatory reaction. Avoiding gluten is not easy, as grains can be found as fillers in a lot of processed foods. However, nutritionists are beginning to recognize gluten as a source of concern, and public awareness is growing. 
Photograph by Pdeitiker. Original uploader was Pdeitiker at en.wikipedia
HOW COMMON IS CONSTIPATION?
As little as people talk about constipation one would think that no one suffers from it. Yet, nothing is further from the truth! Constipation is very common. According to medical studies (Drossman in Digestive Diseases and Sciences , September, 1993), three percent of the nation’s population suffer from constipation. This means that 6,000 people in Charleston County, South Carolina (population: about 200,000) suffer from constipation.
Photo credit: mugley / Foter.com / CC BY-SA
“Two highly visible figures in American politics revealed they had weight loss surgery this week showing no American is immune from the disease of obesity,” said Jaime Ponce, MD, president of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS). “We hope the attention they receive sparks a conversation on what we as individuals and as a country can do to create an environment that promotes both the prevention and treatment of obesity and related diseases.”
The colon and rectum are part of your intestines, which are long, hollow tubes that run from your stomach to your anal opening. There are two types of intestines: the small intestine (or small bowel) and the large intestine (also called the colon or large bowel). The small intestine connects your stomach to your colon, and your colon then attaches to your rectum and, ultimately, your anus. The colon is about five to six feet long and about an inch or two in diameter. By the time food reaches the large intestine, all nutrients have been absorbed.
Patients are beginning to understand what doctors have known for decades; obesity is a disease. For years people who were overweight faced criticism that they were lazy, or lacked will power. Overweight people were humiliated by their peers, and faced diminished prospects in their careers and in their communities.
That prejudice is changing, as years of clinical research and the reflections of primary care physicians are pointing out that despite the effort, overweight people can rarely control their weight over time.
Photo credit: Bigplankton / Foter.com / Public Domain Mark 1.0